The Mineral Occurrence Data System (MODS), which is the principal repository for geological information on the province's mineral resources, is a two-part infobase consisting of a digital mineral occurrence database in MS-Access and a collection of mineral occurrence maps. The MODS comprises summaries of all data on known mineral occurrences, and is designed to offer fast and easy access to information. The project began in 1971 and presently contains approximately 6000 descriptions, covering all of Newfoundland and Labrador. The main delivery point for the MODS data is the Geological Survey of Newfoundland and Labrador website (

Accessing MODS Data

Detailed Data

Query Form

The MODS database can be queried using the search index on the Geological Survey's

webite ( The MODS internet application is dynamically linked to the MS-AccessTM database, which gives clients immediate access to updated files.

"Geoscience Resource Atlas" Online

Detailed MODS data can also be viewed and queried in conjunction with other geoscientific data sets by using the "Geoscience Resources Atlas" , an online mapping application.


MapInfoTM and ArcViewTM

Selected fields from the MODS Database are also available on CD-ROM as part of the Geoscience Atlas of Newfoundland and the Geoscience Atlas of Labrador. Both operate as "turnkey" systems on microcomputers in MapInfo™ and ArcView™ formats.

Information Sources

The MODS is compiled mainly from a systematic search of mineral-exploration assessment reports. Other sources include publications by the Geological Survey of Newfoundland and Labrador, the Geological Survey of Canada, news items, press releases, geological and mining journal publications and communications with mining company and government personnel.

MODS Clients

The MODS is used primarily by mineral exploration company personnel. It is also used by mineral exploration consultants, independent prospectors, geotechnical consultants, personnel and students of academic organizations and the general public. It is used daily by government geologists in land-use-planning. Advise is given to various government departments through the Inter-Departmental Land Use Committee (ILUC) referral process on establishing wilderness areas, hydroelectric developments, water reservoirs, provincial and national parks, cottage developments etc., so that where possible, these developments proceed in areas of low mineral potential.

Spatial Data Projection Information

MODS spatial data is projected using the Universal Transverse Mercator system, North American Datum 1927. Spatial data for Insular Newfoundland are projected into UTM Zone 21. Spatial data for Labrador are projected into UTM Zone 20.

List of Fields in the Database

Items in bold are the data fields as they appear in a "MODS Database System Report" while items in brackets are the corresponding field names in the "back end" database.

1. National Mineral Inventory Number (NMINO)

2. Record ID Number (RecID)

3. Deposit Name (DepName)

4. DDH (DDH)

5. Alternate Name (AltName)

6. Trench (Trench)

7. Major Commodity (ComName)

8. Adit (Adit)

9. Secondary Commodity(ies) (ComMods)

10. Shaft (Shaft)

11. Status (Status)

12. Workings (Working)

13. Complexity (EntCode)

14. Deposit Type (DepType)

15. Region (Region)

16. NTS Area (NTS)

17. UTM Zone (UTMZone)

18. Latitude (Lat)

19. Longitude (Long)

20. Easting (East)

21. Northing (North)

22. Location Uncertainty (Uncert)

23. Elevation (Elev)

24. Object Located (EntCom)

25. Accessibility (LocDesc)

26. Physiographic Setting (PhySet)

27. Ore Minerals (OreMin)

28. Gangue (Gangue)

29. Alteration Minerals (AltMin)

30. Alteration Type(s) (AltType)

31. Age of Mineralization (AgeMin

32. Deposit Description (DepDesc)

33. Metal/Mineral Content (MetMin)

34. Production and/or Reserves (HistPro)

35. Shape (Shape)

36. Shape Modifier (ShpMod)

37. Strike (Strike)

38. Dip (Dip)

39. Plunge (Plunge)

40. Length (Length)

41. Width (Width)

42. Thickness (Thick)

43. Nature Of Mineralization and Genesis (NatMin)

44. Regional Geology and Tectonic Setting (StrFea)

45. Geological Province (GeoProv)

46. Tectonic Zone (TecZone)

47. Stratigraphic Unit (StrUnit)

48. Geological Age (AgeCode)

49. Rock Type (Rocks)

50. History of Exploration and Development (HistExp)

51. Geophysical Expression (GeoPhy)

52. Geochemical Expression (GeoChem)

53. Location Reference

54. Map Reference

55. Main References

56. General References

Description of Data Fields

1. National Mineral Inventory Number (NMINO) Unique alpha numeric record identifier consisting of three parts separated by slashes. The first two parts place the deposit in the NTS grid. The third identifies the major commodity and its sequence within the 1:50,000 NTS map sheet in which it occurs.

1) Numerical part (3 characters) followed by one alpha character; this is the NTS primary unit, e.g. 012B

2) Numerical part (2 characters), e.g. 08

3) Alpha numeric-commodity code (3 alpha characters) followed by 3 numeric characters, e.g. GYP001. NMINO = 012B/08/Gyp001

2. Record ID Number (RecID) Unique number assigned to each record in order of entry into the database.

3. Deposit Name (DepName) The most commonly accepted deposit name found in the literature.

4. DDH (DDH) Indicates if the occurrence has been drilled or not and the number of holes, if any.

Null (no entry) - undrilled

0 -drilled, number of holes unknown

any number > 0 - drilled, number of holes equals the number entered

5. Alternate Name (AltName) Secondary name if deposit or occurrence has been known by some other name.

6. Trench (Trench) Yes/No field. Indicates if the occurrence has been trenched.

7. Major Commodity (Comname) contains the full name of the major commodity present in the deposit (eg. copper, zinc, granite).The major commodity is always the commodity of economic interest that occurs in greatest abundance. When two or more commodities occur in equal abundance the one that has the greater dollar value is to be designated as the major commodity.

8. Adit (Adit) Yes/No field. Indicates if the occurrence has had an adit driven in to it.

9. Secondary Commodity(ies) (ComMods) Secondary commodity(ies) present in the deposit.

10. Shaft (Shaft) Indicates if the occurrence has had a shaft sunk on it. Yes/No

11. Status (Status) Indicater of the amount of work done on a deposit, and hence, the amount of information which exists about the deposit.

There are seven major designations (status groups), of which groups 1 to 4 are major deposits and groups 5 to 7 are minor deposits.

1. Producer

2. Developed prospect

3. Past Producer - dormant

4. Past Producer - exhausted

5. Prospect

6. Showing

7. Indication


Producer - a mineral deposit from which ore is being extracted for commercial gain or benefit. Does not include deposits from which the only material extracted has been for test purposes.

Developed Prospect - a mineral deposit on which, in the opinion of the file builder, enough development work has been done to provide data for the making of a reasonable estimate of the amounts of one or more commodities present, even though the data themselves may not be available.

- 3-dimensional data (i.e., length, width and depth)

Past Producer - a mineral deposit from which production is no longer obtained. Does not include those mineral deposits on which work was stopped after extracting a bulk sample for mailing and other tests, even though the sample may have been large.

dormant - additional in reserves or demonstrated resources

exhausted - no reserves or demonstrated resources

Prospect - a mineral deposit upon which, in the opinion of the file builder, enough development work has been done to provide data for the making of a reasonable estimate of the spacial extent of the deposit, but not enough to estimate the amount of any commodity present.

- 2-dimensional data (i.e., length and width)

Showing - a mineral deposit upon which some development work may have been done, but the extent of such work was not adequate, in the opinion of the file builder, to provide enough data to estimate its spacial dimensions.

- 1-dimensional data + grade

Indication - a mineral deposit upon which no known development work has been done, and for which, in the opinion of the file builder, there exists only an "indication" of its existence (i.e., a "point" on a map, assay, etc.).

12. Workings (Working) Indicator of the type of mine workings present, if any. Under Ground, Open Pit, Under Ground and Open Pit.

13. Complexity (EntCode) Indicates if the deposit consists of one body of mineralization (simple) or more than one (complex).

14. Deposit Type (DepType) Classification of the occurrence based of its genesis. See AppendixB

15. Region (Region) indicates the region of the province (Newfoundland or Labrador) in which the occurrence is located.

16. NTS Area (NTS) is an alpha numeric containing the 1:50,000 NTS area in which the occurrence is located. e.g. 12B/01.

17. UTM Zone (UTMZone) UTM zone in which the deposit is located.

18. Latitude (Lat) Latitude coordinate.

19. Longitude (Long) Longitude coordinate.

20. Easting (East)Easting coordinate

21. Northing (North) Northing coordinate.

22. Location Uncertainty (Uncert) Location error (in metres) as described by (Kelly, GSC Paper 72-9)

23. Elevation (Elev) The height above sea level of the object located in metres.

24. Object Located (EntCom) Indicates what physical feature has been used to locate the mineral occurrence and the Geological Survey of Newfoundland and Labrador library number of the report from which the information was taken.

25. Accessibility (LocDesc) Describes geographically where the occurrence is located and how it can be accessed.

26. Physiographic Setting (PhysSet) Description of the natural features of the earth's surface in the locality of the deposit.

27. Ore Minerals (OreMin) Minerals present which are of economic interest.

28. Gangue Minerals (Gangue) Minerals present that are not of economic interest excluding alteration minerals.

29. Alteration Minerals (WRAlt) Alteration minerals present in the host rock.

30. Alteration Type(s) (AltType) is assigned based on the assemblage of alteration minerals present and by using the "Atlas of Alteration, A Field and Petrographic Guide to Hydrothermal Alteration Minerals" edited by Thompson and Thompson as a guide.

Atlas of Alteration, A Field and Petrographic Guide to Hydrothermal Alteration Minerals. Edited by Thompson, A.J.B; Thompson, J.F.H. and Dunne, K.P.E.; 1996. Geological Association of Canada, Mineral Deposits Division.

31. Age of Mineralization (AgeMin) The age of the mineralization based on the geologic time scale.

32. Deposit Description (DepDesc) Description of the geology of the occurrence.

33. Metal/Mineral Content (MetMin) Indicator of the amount of metal content with regard to other minerals present. This information is usually derived from lab assays of rock samples.

34. Production and/or Reserves (HistPro) Periods during which the property was in

production, and to give some idea of the scale of the operations, the total production in terms of tonnage mined, tonnage milled, and amount of minerals or other commodities recovered for each of these periods. No attempt is made to compile year-by-year production statistics, excepting where operations have been carried out for only a few years.

35. Shape (Shape) Geometric shape of the deposit (if defined).

(i) Isometroid The deposit is regularly shaped and has approximately the same dimensions in all directions. Shapes range from tetrahedral to spheroidal.
(ii) Tabuloid The deposit is roughly tabular, that is, has two long dimensions and one short. Any orientation in space is possible. The class includes veins, sills, dykes, etc.
(iii) Cylindroidal The deposit has one long and two short dimensions with the two short ones being approximately equal. Any orientation in space is possible. This class includes pipes, etc.
(iv) Bladoid A deposit having one long, one medium, and one short dimension. Any orientation in space is possible. Many shear and fault zones and some dykes will belong to this class.
(v) Irregular Geometrically, the deposit is characterized by having no discernible regularity of form.
(vi) Lensoidal The deposit has one long, one medium, and one short dimension. Any orientation in space is possible. Many volcanogenic massive sulphide deposits belong to this class.

36. Shape Modifier (ShpMod) Shape modifier.

(i) folded

(ii) faulted

(iii) fractured

(iv) sheared

(v) concordant

(vi) discordant

37. Strike (Strike) Direction of trend of the orebody measured in a horizontal plane. Recorded as an azimuth.

38. Dip (Dip) True Dip inclination of a body, from the horizontal, measured in a vertical plane perpendicular to strike. Recorded in degrees (0 - 90) with dip direction recorded as an azimuth.

39. Plunge (Plunge) Inclination of a body measured by its departure from the horizontal.

Plunge is indicated in degrees (0 - 90) with direction of plunge recorded as an azimuth.

40. Length (Length) largest dimension of the body.

41. Width (Width) the thickness of a lode measured in the same plane as the length and at right angles to the dip. The term "true width" is often used to describe this value, in which case width is used to denote the thickness irrespective of angle of dip.

42. Thickness (Thick) The dimension of a body measured perpendicular to the plane in which length and width are measured

43. Nature Of Mineralization and Genesis (NatMin) Description of the mineralization and the metallogenic process which deposited it.

44. Regional Geology and Tectonic Setting (StrFea) Description of the regional geology and tectonic setting of the deposit.

45. Geological Province (GeoProv) The geological province in which the occurrence lies. In Labrador some occurrences may lie in strata that post date deformation and straddle geological province boundaries. An example of this would include the Nain Plutonic Suite of Labrador. In Labrador all occurrences hosted by strata that post date deformation would have Post Orogenic Sequences placed in the geological province field. For insular Newfoundland the choices are either Appalachian or Grenville.

46. Tectonic Zone (TecZone) Only applies to occurrences of insular Newfoundland. Indicates the tectono-stratigraphic zone in which the occurrence lies. In cases where occurrences are hosted by strata that post date deformation and straddle zone boundaries Post Ordovician Overlap Sequence or Post Ordovician Intrusions are entered .

47. Stratigraphic Unit (StrUnit) The name of the stratigraphic unit which hosts the occurrence. Appendix C is a guide to stratigraphic unit names used in the Mineral Occurrence Data System.

48. The Geological Age (AgeCode) Age of the stratigraphic unit that hosts the mineralization.

49. Rock Type (Rocks) Individual rock types associated with the deposit. Example Granite Rhyolite, Gabbro.

50. History of Exploration and Development (HistExp) Describes the exploration and development history of the deposit, or in the case of undeveloped occurrences, the exploration history of the area in which the deposit or occurrence lies.

51. Geophysical Expression (GeoPhy) If a deposits has a geoahysical expression in the form of a geophysical anomaly a brief description is given.

52. Geochemical Expression (GeoChem) If a deposits has a geochemical expression in the form of a geochemical anomaly (i.e., Pb-Zn deposits - stream sampling) a brief description is given.


53. Location Reference Reference to the document from which the location of the occurrence was taken. An occurrence should have only one location reference.

54. Map Reference Map reference(s) that pertain to the occurrence.

55. Main References List for the most important references from which information was taken to document the occurrence.

56. General References List of references that pertain to the occurrence indirectly. These references may discuss the regional geology, geochemistry, geophysics etc.


According to Kelly's definition (Kelly, GSC Paper 72-9) the degree of uncertainty of a location is represented by the ratios of the smallest circle, which if centred on the apparent location, will almost certainly contain the point of interest. Uncertainty is measured in metres and is the greater of:

1. map scale, plot transfer and reading errors, which are additive;

2. total error estimated from doubts arising about the accuracy of plots, maps and locational descriptions.

The errors under (1) are a function of the map scales involved without regard for reliability of maps and plots. The matter of inherent map error (planimetric accuracy) has been covered by Kelly (ib.). To restate this briefly, features on the best maps (Topo) available may be regarded as plotted accurately to 0.5 mm, equivalent to errors of 125, 25 and 12.5 m, respectively, on 250 000, 50 000, and 25 000 scales. If plot transfer is involved from one scale to another, the net inherent error is that due to the smaller scale. In addition a reading error of at least 0.5 mm, on the lowest scale used must be added. Therefore, the total uncertainty due to map scale alone is always at least twice the (final) map error (e.g., 50 m for reading a point directly off a 1:50 000 map). Total uncertainty arising from doubt about the accuracy of the original plot, map base, or description is more subject to value judgement, although it may exceed that due to scale considerations alone. Here belong plots on geological maps, crude sketches, unsurveyed claim maps, dubious or off-centred map symbols, and descriptions with reference to unsurveyed claims and geographic or topographic features. The size of the total uncertainty to be assigned this component will vary according to the kind of data, and to personal judgement.

Map Scale Minimum Radius of Uncertainty on the Ground

1 inch to the following: Ratio Feet Metres

1000 feet 1:12 000 82 25

1320 feet 1:15 000 82 25

2640 feet 1:31 680 82 25

0.789 miles 1:50 000 82 25

1 mile 1:63 360 105 32

2 miles 1:126 720 207 63

3.95 miles 1:250 000 410 125

7.89 miles 1:500 000 820 250

15.78 miles 1:1 000 000 1640 500

EXAMPLES of Typical Location Problems

Example 1

A copper occurrence is or isn't described briefly in a GSC Memoir and is marked with a cross on accompanying geol. Map SC. 1" : 16 mi., 1956. Topo coverage at 250 000 scale.

Analysis: Minimum map scale error is 500 m; add another 500 m for geologist's plotting error; transfer error to 250 000 topo and subsequent reading error are negligible.

Result: Object Located Cu showing

Uncertainty 1 000 m

Ref. # Geol. map, Sc. 1" : 16 mi, 1956

* Appropriate topo map Sc. 1:250 000

Example 2

A zinc occurrence is or isn't described in accompanying report and is marked "Zn" on Map P. 345, 1" : 1 mi., 1965. Topo coverage at 50 000 scale.

Var. 1: The symbol is inside a large outcrop area.

Var. 2: The symbol is to the side of an isolated outcrop.

Analysis: Var. 1: the showing is probably somewhere within Ľ inch of symbol of ˝ radius of the centre-point of the symbol. Scale, plot transfer and reading errors - negligable.

Analysis: Var. 2: Take the cross symbol of outcrop; minimum map scale plus plotting error - 50 m; transfer and reading errors negligible.

Result Var. 1 Var. 2

Lat-Long centrepoint of "Zn" outcrop cross-symbol

Object Located Zn showing Zn showing

Uncertainty 800 m 50 m

Ref. # Map P. 345, 1965 # Map P. 345, 1965

*Topo Map - if used in determination *Topo Map - if used in

"Remarks" - Centre Pt. of "zn" determination of Lat.-Long.

symbol is taken as position of showing

Example 3

The only reference to location is descriptive, e.g., "One mile north of Red Bay" - no clues can be gleaned from geological description. Topo map coverage at 50 000.

Var. 1: Red Bay is relatively small with well defined north point.

Var. 2: Red Bay has smooth or rugose outline extending east-west 2 miles without defined north point, or several such points.

Analysis: Var. 1: Take the point 1 mile north of north point of Red Bay. Uncertainty of description probably ˝ mile; others are negligible.

Analysis: Var. 2: Take the point 1 mi. north of centre outline of Red Bay. East-west uncertainty will be larger than descriptive, assign 1˝ mile uncertainty; those due to scale, negligible.

Result Var. 1 Var. 2

Lat-Long point 1 mi - N of N pt. of Red Bay Point 1 mi - N of centre of N

outline of Red Bay

Object Located showing showing

Uncertainty 800 m 2500 m

Ref. *Topo Maps

"Remarks": Corp. File:

"Anzac M.L." (in rept. filed, TSE, Sept. 8, 1973, p. 8).

Example 4

The location of reported showing(s) is known to be within a large group of claims outlined on a Langridge map - no other clues.

Analysis: The point is taken as centre of circle circumscribing the claims, whether within or outside the group. The radius is the uncertainty with all other errors negligible.

Result: Objected Located Showing(s)

Uncertainty 5000 m

Ref. *Topo Map: "Remarks"; Langridge Map, Sturgeon L. Area, May 3, 1973 (Centre, circumscribed cl. gp.)

Example 5

The only reference to deposit is this paragraph in The Canadian Mining Journal of Sept. 1970: "Canadian Nickel working since 1960 in the Horden Lake Area has outlined a copper-nickel orebody in gabbro". Quebec Prel. Map 1673, 1" : 1 mi., 1959, of the area, antedating the discovery, shows a 3-mile NE belt of basic-ultrabasic extending from south of east side of Horden Lake. There is no aeromagnetic coverage; the best topographic map is on a scale of 1:250 000.

Analysis: It is reasonable to assume that the deposit is within the basic intrusive belt, on which 2 small copper-nickel showings far apart are indicated. Scarcity of mapped outcrop at the ends of the belt suggests it may actually be 5 miles long.

Result: Lat-Long centre of belt

Object Located Cu-Ni deposit

Uncertainty 4 000 m (2˝ mi.)

Ref. "Remarks": Laurin & Dugas, CMJ, Sept. 1970, p. 392 # Prel. Map. 1673, 1959

Example 6

The best location is a generalized map mine symbol on a 50 000 topo map.

Analysis: The mine area is known to have a shaft, glory hole, mill and buildings. While centre of shaft or glory hole would be the preferred object located, neither is pinpointed. We can still designate object located as either shaft or glory hole by giving uncertainty suitably larger, then that due to map and reading error, to the centre of the symbol. In this case, however, we are probably justified in giving a generalized designation.

Result: Lat-Long centre of map symbol

Object Located Mine

Uncertainty 50 m

Ref. # Map 36J/E----, 1942

Example 7

A 1" : 1000' map shows distribution of drill holes on an occurrence in the Northwest Territories described in an accompanying company report, filed for assessment with the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development. Topographical map coverage is at 1:250 000.

Analysis: Pinpoint centre of drilling. Error due to transfer to topographical map is 125 m and reading error another 125 m; others are negligible.

Result: Lat-Long centre of Drilling

Object Located drilling (1968)

Uncertainty 250 m



(Write a paragraph on how the classification system is organized, discuss some applications etc.)

Heirachey, organized on genesis




001 - 099


Includes all deposits that are clearly related to magmatic or magmatic - hydrothermal processes.

001 Undivided deposits related to magmatic or magmatic- hydrothermal processes


002 Undivided ultramafic - mafic magmatic deposits


010 Undivided ultramafic - mafic magmatic deposits associated with extrusive rocks

015 Komatiitic association; includes magmatic sulphides associated with komatiitic volcanics

020 Tholeiitic Association


025 Undivided ultramafic - mafic magmatic deposits associated with intrusive rocks

030 Deposits associated with ophiolite sequences

035 Deposits associated with anorogenic anorthosite massifs

036 Deposits associated with anorogenic gabbro

040 Deposits associated with large stratiform complexes (e.g. layered intrusions)

045 Deposits associated with orogenic intrusions (e.g. Silurian gabbros in Appalachians)

050 - 059 FELSIC MAGMATIC ASSOCIATIONS Orthomagmatic mineralization

050 Undivided felsic magmatic deposits

051 FELSIC EXTRUSIVE ASSOCIATIONS (e.g. automineralized Sn rhyolite)

052 FELSIC INTRUSIVE ASSOCIATIONS (e.g. orthomagmatic Mo, Cu in granitoids not obviously related to magmatic - hydrothermal processes)

060 - 099 MAGMATIC - HYDROTHERMAL ASSOCIATIONS Includes all mineralization with a component of hydrothermal mass transport that is clearly genetically related to magmatic processes. There may be some overlap with structurally - controlled hydrothermal deposits (300-399). This class is intended only for deposits with a close spatial and probably direct genetic relationship with magmatic rocks. Mesothermal and other veins that cannot be directly related to magmatism (e.g. mesothermal mineralization, mineralized veins of uncertain origin) should be referred to 300-399.

060 Undivided magmatic - hydrothermal deposits

065 PORPHYRY - TYPE (Sensu lato as defined by McMillan and Panteleyev, 1988). Includes porphyry Cu, Mo, Au and Sn and the spectrum between purely orthomagmatic mineralization (which should be coded 052) and convective processes involving both magmatic and other water.

070 PEGMATITES Includes Sn, W, other base metals. Pegmatites for which the principal commodity is an industrial mineral (including gemstones, beryllium, feldspar, mica, fluorspar, rare earths or other rare metals) should be coded 520-525.


075 VEINS Includes only veins that are clearly directly related to intrusions. Other veins should be coded in the 300 series.



100 - 299


Includes both stratiform (generally syngenetic) deposits interbedded with host strata and epigenetic deposits that are stratabound in a broader sense, i.e., more or less confined to broad stratigraphic units. This class specifically excludes epigenetic mineralization that is structurally - controlled, even though it may be broadly stratabound (e.g. mesothermal gold at Stog'er Tight). Structurally - controlled veins as well as those of uncertain designation should be coded in the 300 series.

100 Undivided stratabound deposits


101 Undivided volcanic - associated stratabound deposits


Deposits of the marine volcanic association formed through sub-seafloor hydrothermal processes: includes both volcanogenic massive sulphides and volcanogenic stockworks. Deposits are subdivided and classified according to the nature of the stratigraphic section (e.g. ophiolite or volcanic/epiclastic) and the relative proportions of mafic and felsic volcanic rocks in the host sequence.

110 Undivided volcanogenic sulphide deposits

111 - 119 Deposits associated with volcanic rocks that are part of ophiolite sequences

111 Undivided volcanogenic sulphide deposits in ophiolites

112 Massive sulphide (±stockwork)

113 Volcanogenic stockwork

114 Sulphide - bearing breccia

120 - 129 Deposits associated with dominantly mafic volcanic rocks that are part of thick volcanic/epiclastic sequences

120 Undivided volcanogenic sulphide deposits in thick, mafic- dominated volcanic/epiclastic sequences

121 Massive sulphide (±stockwork)

122 Volcanogenic stockwork

123 Sulphide - bearing breccia

130 - 139 Deposits associated with sequences of mixed mafic - felsic (e.g. 35:65 to 65:35) volcanic rocks that are part of thick volcanic/epiclastic sequences

130 Undivided volcanogenic sulphide deposits in thick, mixed mafic/felsic volcanic/epiclastic sequences

131 Massive sulphide (±stockwork)

132 Volcanogenic stockwork

133 Sulphide - bearing breccia

140 - 149 Deposits associated with dominantly felsic volcanic rocks that are part of thick volcanic/epiclastic sequences

140 Undivided volcanogenic sulphide deposits in thick, felsic - dominated volcanic/epiclastic sequences

141 Massive sulphide (±stockwork)

142 Volcanogenic stockwork

143 Sulphide - bearing breccia

150 - 159 Deposits hosted by marine sedimentary rocks that are nonetheless part of a dominantly volcanic association

150 Undivided sediment-hosted deposits associated with marine volcanic rocks

151 Clastic host (e.g. Many "Besshi-type" massive sulphides)

152 Chert host

153 Limestone host

154 Algoma-type iron formation - oxide facies

155 Algoma-type iron formation - sulphide facies


Includes epigenetic mineralization that is stratabound by virtue of being localized within favourable volcanic stratigraphic units. Excludes structurally-controlled epigenetic mineralization in volcanic rocks, which should be coded in the 300 series.

170 Undivided stratabound volcanic deposits


Copper mineralization hosted by volcanic rocks in a dominantly continental sedimentary succession, associated with sedimentary copper deposits (e.g. epigenetic copper in breccias and amygdaloidal basalts in the Seal Lake area)

180 Undivided sedimentary copper deposits


185 Undivided stratabound mineralization in sills


Uranium localized in felsic tuff by diagenetic or epigenetic processes (e.g. Michelin).

190 Undivided volcanic-related uranium deposits


200 Undivided stratabound mineralization in sedimentary rocks


201 Undivided stratabound deposits in carbonate rocks

205 Stratiform syngenetic sulphides (dominantly Pb, Zn ± Ba, "Irish - type")

210 - 219 Epigenetic stratabound deposits in carbonate rocks

210 Undivided epigenetic stratabound deposits in carbonate rocks

211 Primary Void Filling

212 Secondary Void Filling (e.g. karst, dolomitic breccia)

213 Veins where clearly stratabound within carbonate hosts and/or closely related to other carbonate-hosted epigenetic mineralization (e.g. some occurrences in Carboniferous rocks on the Port au Port Peninsula).


220 Undivided stratabound deposits in clastic sedimentary rocks

221 - 239 Shale-hosted deposits

221 Undivided shale-hosted deposits

222 Stratabound copper deposits; Hosted by shales and mudstones, associated with redbeds and evaporites: includes late diagenetic (e.g. "Kuperschiefer-type") and epigenetic deposits (e.g. many deposits in Seal Lake area)

223 Epigenetic stratabound, non-cupriferous metal deposits (e.g. stratabound, epigenetic Pb, Zn)

224 Stratiform Pb-Zn deposits in black shale (Sedimentary exhalative or "SEDEX" deposits)

225 Argillite-hosted uranium occurrences (e.g. Kitts)

240 - 249 Sandstone-hosted deposits Includes diagenetic to epigenetic, aquifer and stratigraphic trap-related mineralization.

240 Undivided sandstone-hosted deposits

241 Sandstone-hosted copper deposits (includes redbed, greybed)

242 Sandstone-hosted uranium deposits

243 Sandstone lead deposits (Laisval type)

244 Placers and paleoplacers (Au, U)

250 - 259 Conglomerate-hosted deposits

250 Undivided conglomerate-hosted deposits

251 Matrix replacement sulphides

252 Conglomerate-hosted uranium deposits

253 Paleoplacers

270 - 279 Other sediment-hosted associations

270 Undivided other sediment-hosted deposits

271 Evaporite-hosted Deposits

280 - 289 Sedimentary iron deposits not including Algoma type, which is part of the volcanic association, or magnetite sands, which are placers and should be coded 244.

280 Undivided sedimentary iron deposits

281 Superior-type banded iron formation (e.g. Labrador Trough)

282 Clinton-type oolitic iron formation (e.g. Wabana)

283 Bog iron recent deposits

290 - 299 STRATABOUND DEPOSITS IN METAMORPHIC ROCKS Includes only stratabound deposits where the original character cannot be determined

290 Undivided stratabound deposits in metamorphic rocks

300 - 399


This class is meant to encompass all deposits for which the controlling mechanisms are dominantly structural rather than stratigraphic. They include deposits that are related to mineralization along shear zones, faults, fold hinges or other structural features. There is some overlap with class 200-299 in cases where fluids have migrated along structural features and then deposited mineralization along favourable horizons (e.g. Carlin - type gold). Likewise, there is ambiguity where competency contrast between stratigraphic units has controlled fluid flow and mineralization within the more competent unit (e.g. some mesothermal gold situations). Discretion should be used in deciding whether there is a significant structural control to the mineralization, in which case it should be coded in the 300 series. In general, all epithermal and mesothermal gold mineralization should be coded in this class. Specifically excluded are clear magmatic-hydrothermal associations.

300 Undivided hydrothermal, structurally-controlled deposits


310 Undivided hydrothermal vein systems


311 Undivided vein systems accompanied by no or minimal wallrock alteration

312 Mesothermal precious metal association e.g. the quartz-vein type of Dubé, 1989, Deer Cove, Cape Ray) may include; Au, As, Sb, locally accompanied by base metals


320 Undivided vein systems accompanied by significant or widespread wallrock alteration

321 precious metal mineralization accompanied by aluminous alteration; includes most Newfoundland examples of epithermal - type mineralization, e.g. Hickey's Pond, probably Hope Brook

322 precious metal mineralization accompanied by alkali - carbonate alteration; mesothermal examples include both broadly stratabound mesothermal mineralization in gabbroic sills (e.g. Stog'er Tight) and alkali alteration and mineralization of granitoid rocks (e.g. Rattling Brook, Western White Bay).


330 Undivided structurally controlled deposits not associated with veining

331 Unconformity - related uranium deposits

400 - 449


Includes deposits resulting from essentially isochemical metamorphism. Does not include deposits formed through metasomatic or magmatic-hydrothermal processes

400 Undivided metamorphogenic deposits


500 - 599



500 Undivided intrusive igneous rocks and minerals


501 Undivided ultramafic intrusive igneous rocks and minerals

502 Ultramafic rocks as stone

503 Minerals of value in ultramafic rocks; includes olivine, chromite

505 - 509 MAFIC ROCKS

505 Undivided mafic intrusive igneous rocks and minerals

506 stone (e.g. gabbro, diorite, anorthosite)

507 minerals of value in mafic rocks (e.g., Fe-Ti oxides, gems)

510 - 515 FELSIC ROCKS excluding pegmatites

510 Undivided felsic intrusive igneous rocks and minerals

511 Felsic intrusive rocks as stone (e.g. granite)

512 Minerals of value in felsic intrusive rocks

513 Nepheline syenite

520 - 525 PEGMATITES Includes deposits of feldspar, mica, quartz, lithium minerals, beryllium minerals, fluorspar and rare metals (e.g. Strange Lake high grade zone). May also include Labradorite gemstone in anorthositic pegmatites

520 Undivided pegmatitic rocks and minerals


540 Undivided extrusive igneous rocks and minerals

541 - 544 MAFIC ROCKS

541 Undivided mafic extrusive igneous rocks and minerals

542 Stone

543 Minerals of value in mafic rocks

545 - 549 FELSIC ROCKS

545 Undivided felsic extrusive igneous rocks and minerals

546 Stone

547 Minerals of value in felsic rocks; includes magmatic - hydrothermal deposits such as rare metal occurrences in Letitia Lake area.

600 - 699



600 Undivided clastic sediments

601 - 619 PLACERS Includes Fe-Ti oxide, chromite, other heavy mineral sands. Includes paleoplacers.

601 Undivided placers


620 Undivided unconsolidated surficial deposits

621 sand and gravel aggregate

622 clay

623 silica sand

630 - 639 CONSOLIDATED CLASTIC SEDIMENTARY ROCKS Includes sandstone, shale, quartzite

630 Undivided consolidated clastic sedimentary rocks


640 Undivided biogenic sedimentary rocks


641 Undivided unconsolidated surficial deposits

642 diatomaceous earth

643 peat

644 marl


650 Undivided consolidated biogenic sedimentary rocks

651 Carbonates (e.g., includes limestone, dolomite, chalk)

652 Phosphates

653 Sulphur

654 Silicates (e.g., chert, chalcedony)


660 Undivided chemical sediments

661 - 669 EVAPORITES Includes barite, celestite, salt, potash, gypsum, anhydrite, etc.

661 Undivided evaporates

670 - 679 NON-EVAPORITIC PRECIPITATES Includes sedimentary manganese, umbers, non-biogenic limestone (e,g, oolitic limestone)

670 Undivided non-evaporitic precipitates

680 - 689 FOSSIL FUELS (Not including peat)

680 Undivided fossil fuels

681 coal

682 oil seep or tar

683 oil-saturated clastic sediments

684 gas

700 - 749


700 Undivided rocks and minerals resulting from alteration or weathering

701 - 705 MINERALS DEPOSITED FROM HYDROTHERMAL SOLUTIONS e.g. silica in quartz veins, fluorspar not contained in pegmatites, includes some types of manganese deposits, umbers

701 Undivided minerals deposited from hydrothermal solutions

706 - 710 ROCKS AND MINERALS RESULTING FROM HYDROTHERMAL (METASOMATIC) ALTERATION (e.g. Manuals pyrophyllite, asbestos, talc, magnesite)

706 Undivided rocks and minerals resulting from hydrothermal alteration


720 Undivided surficially altered rocks and minerals

721 - 725 RESIDUAL DEPOSITS Includes laterite, vermiculite, regolith (e.g. the Fermont Road silica deposit), ochre

721 Undivided residual deposits

750 - 799


750 Undivided metamorphic rocks and minerals


751 Undivided metamorphic rocks of value

752 Carbonates (e.g. marble)

753 Silicates (e.g. slate, soapstone, serpentinite, quartzite)

760 - 769 METAMORPHIC MINERALS OF VALUE Includes graphite, corundum, garnet, wollastonite, alumino-silicate refractory minerals)

760 Undivided metamorphic minerals of value


Stratigraphic Unit Names/Newfoundland

Ackley Granite

Adeyton Gp

Advocate Complex

Andersons Cove Fm

Anguille Gp

Baie D'espoir Gp

Baie D'espoir Gp - Isle Galet Fm

Balsam Bud Cove Fm

Barachois Gp

Barbace Point Fm-St George Gp

Bay De Verde Fm-Hodgewater Gp

Bay du Nord Gp

Bay of Islands Igneous Complex

Bay View Fm

Beach Fm-Eastern Head Member

Beaver Brook Fm

Bell Island Gp

Belle Bay Fm

Belleoram Granite

Betts Cove Complex

Big Head Fm-Musgravetown Gp

Big Round Pond Granite

Birchy Complex

Birchy Schist Gp

Blow Me Down Brook Fm

Boat Harbour Fm-St George Gp

Bonavista Fm-Adeyton Gp

Boones Point Complex

Botwood Gp-Wigwam Fm

Branching River Fm

Brent Island Fm-St George Gp

Brigus Fm-Adeyton Gp

Buchans Gp

Bugell's Harbour Gabbro

Bull Arm Fm-Musgravetown Gp

Burgeo Batholith

Burin Gp

Burlington Granodiorite

Burnt Head Fm-Cutwell Gp

Business Cove Granite

Campbellton Sequence

Cape Brule Porphyry

Cape Ray Fault Mylonite Zone

Cape Rouge Fm

Cape St John Gp

Catchers Pond Gp

Catoche Fm-St George Gp

Chamberlains Brook Fm

Chanceport Gp

Chapel Arm Fm

Chapel Island Fm

Cinq Cerf Complex

Cinq Isles Fm

Clam Bank Fm

Clancey's Pond Complex

Cobbs Arm Limestone

Cochrane Pond Granite

Codroy Gp

Codroy Road Fm-codroy Gp

Conception Gp

Coney Arm Allochthon

Coney Arm Gp

Coney Head Complex

Connaigre Bay Group

Connecting Point Gp

Cormacks Lake Complex

Corner Brook Fm-St George Gp

Cow Head Gp-Humber Arm SupGp

Coy Pond Complex

Crippleback Lake Qtz Monzonite

Cross Hills Batholith

Cross Hills Plutonic Suite

Crown Hill Fm

Cuckold Fm-Signal Hill Gp

Davidsville Gp

Deadman's Bay Granite

Deer Lake Gp

Devils Room Granite

Dolomite Fm-Labrador Gp

Dominion Fm-Bell Island Gp

Doucers Fm-Coney Arm Gp

Doughball Point Fm

Drook Fm-Conception Gp

Dunnage Melange

East Pond Metamorphic Suite

Exploits Gp

Fermeuse Fm-St John's Gp

Flatwater Pond Gp

Fleur De Lys Supgp

Fortune Harbour Fm

French-Childs Granite

Frenchmans Cove Fm

Friars Cove Fm-Anguille Gp

Gales Brook Dolomite

Gales Brook Granite

Gander Gp

Gander Lake Pluton

Gander River Ultrabasic Belt

Garden Cove Fm-White Bay Gp

Georges Brook Fm-La Poile Gp

Gibbett Hill Fm-Signal Hill Gp

Glacial Deposit

Glover Fm

Glover Island Complex

Goldson Conglomerate

Goose Cove Fm

Goose Tickle Fm

Grand Bank Sequence

Grand Beach Complex

Grand Lake Gp

Grand Le Pierre Fm

Great Bay De L'eau Fm

Great Bend Complex

Green Point Series-St Paul Gp

Grey River Quartz Veins

Gull Island Fm

Gull Lake Intrusive Suite

Halls Bay Pluton

Halls Town Fm-Hodgewater Gp

Harbour Breton Granite

Harbour Le Cou Gp

Harbour Main Gp

Hare Bay Gneiss

Hawke Bay Fm-Labrador Gp

Hawks Nest Pond Porphyry

Hearts Content Fm

Hearts Desire Fm

Holyrood Granite

Howley Beds Fm-Deer Lake Gp

Hughes Brook Fm-St George Gp

Humber Arm SupGp

Humber Falls Fm-Deer Lake Gp

Hungry Hill Gabbro

Indian Head Complex

Indian Islands Gp

Inlet Gp

Iona Island Intusive Suite

Irishtown Fm

Isle Galet Fm-baie D'espoir Gp

Kaegudeck Lake Gabbro

Keepings Gneiss

Kim Lake Felsic Member

Kippens Fm

L Codroy Gp

La Poile Gp

La Scie Granite

Labrador Gp

Lawrence Harbour Shale

Lawrenceton Fm

Little Harbour Fm

Little Passage Gneisses

Little Pond Brook Fm

Little Port Complex

Little Port Slice Gp

Lloyds Intrusive Suite

Long Harbour Gp

Long Island Batholith

Long Point Gp

Long Range Complex

Long Range Gneiss

Long Tickle Fm-Cutwell Gp

Love Cove Gp

Lower Buchans Subgp

Lower Volcanic Fm-Sops Arm Gp

Luscombe Point Fm

Lush's Bight Gp

Maccles Lake Granite

Maiden Point Fm

March Point Fm-P Au P Gp

Mary Ann's Fm

Marystown Gp

Maturin Ponds Fm

Mcgraw Member-Beach Fm

Mic Mac Gp

Micrite Fm-Labrador Gp

Middle Ridge Granite

Ming's Bight Gp

Mooring Cove Fm

Mt Lucy-Anne Fm

Mt Peyton Gabbro

Murry Cove Schist

Musgravetown Gp

Natlins Cove Fm-Sops Arm Gp

New Bay Fm

North Bay Granite

North Branch Fm-Codroy Gp

North Brook Fm-Deer Lake Gp

North Pond Pluton

North Steady Pond Fm

North West Brook Complex

Old House Cove Gp

Otter Point Granite

Pacquet Harbour Gp

Pardy Island Fm

Parsons Point Fm-Cutwell Gp

Partridgeberry Hills Granite

Penny's Brook Fm

Petit Jardin Fm-P Au P Gp

Petites Granite

Pigeon Head Unit

Pigeon Island Fm-White Bay Gp

Pine Falls Fm

Pine Tree Unit-St George Gp

Pipestone Pond Complex

Pleasant View Fm

Point Rousse Complex

Pools Cove Fm

Port Aux Basques Gneiss

Port Aux Basques Granite

Port Aux Bras Fm

Post Glacial Zone

Quidi Vidi Fm-Signal Hill Gp

Ragged Islands Intrusion

Rainy Lake Complex

Random Fm

Rattling Brook Gp

Reddits Cove Gabbro

Rencontre Fm

Renews Head Fm-St John's Gp

Riches Island Fm

Roberts Arm Gp

Robinsons River Fm-Codroy Gp

Rocky Brook Fm-Deer Lake Gp

Rose Blanche Granite

Salmon River Dam Fm

Salt Pond Fm

Sansom Greywacke

Schooner Cove Sill

Scotia Fm-Bell Island Gp

Sculpin Point Fm-Burin Gp

Seal Bay Brook Fm

Seal Cove Complex-Cutwell Gp

Seal Cove Pluton

Searston Fm-Barachois Gp

Ship Cove Fm-Codroy Gp

Shoal Arm Fm

Side Harbour Fm

Signal Hill Gp

Simms Ridge Fm-Sops Arm Gp

Skeleton Pond Tuff

Skidder Basalt

Sleepy Cove Fm

Smith Point Fm-Adeyton Gp

Snakes Bight Fm-Anguille Gp

Snooks Arm Gp

Snows Pond Fm-Hodgewater Gp

Sops Arm Gp

Sops Head Complex

South End Fm

South Lake Igneous Complex

Southern Arm Fm-St George Gp

Southern Hills Fm-Love Cove Gp

Southwest Brook Complex

Spout Falls Fm

Square Pond Gneiss

St Anthony Complex

St George Gp

St George Gp-White Hills Unit

St Josephs Cove Fm

St Lawrence Granite

St Paul Gp-Humber Arm Supgp

Stag Island Fm-Cutwell Gp

Steel Mountain Anorthosite

Stoney Hill Fm-Sops Arm Gp

Summerford Gp

Summerside Fm

Swift Current Granite

Table Head Gp

Table Point Fm-Table Head Gp

Tea Arm Volcanics

Tickle Point Fm

Tims Harbour Fm

Topsails Granite-Glover Fm

Topsails Intrusive Suite

Trinny Cove Fm

Trump Island Fm

U Codroy Gp

Unfortunate Cove Fm

Unit 9b-Advocate Complex


Unnamed Caradocian Chert-shale

Unnamed Granite Rocks

Upper Buchans Subgp

Venams Bight Basalt

Victoria Lake Gp

Wardsworth Fm

Wareham Granite

Watts Bight Fm-St George Gp

Webbers Cove Conglomerate

Western Head Fm

White Bay Gp-Fleur De Lys Supg

White Hills Peridotite

White Hills Unit-St George Gp

Wigwam Fm-Botwood Gp

Windowglass Hill Granite

Windsor Point Gp

Woodville Fm

Youngsters Gulch Member

Stratigraphic Unit Names/labrador

Adeline Island Fm-Seal Lake Gp

Adlavik Intrusive Suite

Aillik Gp

Arc Lake Intrusive Suite

Ashuanipi Complex

Astray Lake Fm

Ballet Pond Schists

Benedict Mtns Intrusive Suite

Bessie Lake Fm-Seal Lake Gp

Brown Lake Fm-Bruce River Gp

Cape Harrison Metamorphic Ste

Denault Fm-knob Lake Gp

Dolly Fm-knob Lake Gp

Eastern Basement Complex

Florence Lake Gp

Flowers River Igneous Suite

Harp Lake Intrusive Suite

Heggart Lake Fm-Bruce River Gp

Hopedale Complex

Island Harbor Bay Plutonic Ste

Joe Pond Fm-Moran Lake Gp

Kanairiktok Intrusive Suite

Kiglapait Intrusion

Le Fer Fm-knob Lake Gp

Long Island Quartz Monzonite

Lower Aillik Gp

Maggo Gneiss

Menihek Fm-knob Lake Gp

Michael Gabbro

Michikamau Intrusion

Moran Lake Gp

Nain Anorthosite Complex

Nain Plutonic Suite

Nimish Subgp-knob Lake Gp

Otter Lake-walker Lake Granite

Red Wine Alk Intrusive Suite

Ruth & Sokoman Fm-knob Lake Gp

Ruth Lake Fm-knob Lake Gp

S Kaipokok Valley Int Suite

Salmon Lake Fm-Seal Lake Gp

Sawyer Lake Fm-knob Lake Gp

Schist Lakes Fm

Shabogamo Intrusive Suite

Sokoman Fm-Knob Lake Gp

Sokoman/Menihek Fm-Knob Lake

Sylvia Lake Fm-Bruce River Gp

Thompson Lake Fm-Doublet Gp

Upper Aillik Gp

Upper Red Quartzite Fm

Wakuach Gabbro

Warren Creek Fm-Moran Lake Gp

Whisky Lake Fm-seal Lake Gp

Willbob Fm-Doublet Gp

Wishart Fm-Knob Lake Gp

Wuchusk Lake Fm-Seal Lake Gp