The Mineral Occurrence Data System (MODS), which is the principal repository for geological information on the province's mineral resources, is a two-part infobase consisting of a digital mineral occurrence database in MS-Access and a collection of mineral occurrence maps. The MODS comprises summaries of all data on known mineral occurrences, and is designed to offer fast and easy access to information. The project began in 1971 and presently contains approximately 6000 descriptions, covering all of Newfoundland and Labrador. The main delivery point for the MODS data is the Geological Survey of Newfoundland and Labrador website (http://www.geosurv.gov.nf.ca).
Accessing MODS Data
The MODS database can be queried using the search index on the Geological Survey's
webite (http://www.geosurv.gov.nf.ca). The MODS internet application is dynamically linked to the MS-AccessTM database, which gives clients immediate access to updated files.
"Geoscience Resource Atlas" Online
Detailed MODS data can also be viewed and queried in conjunction with other geoscientific data sets by using the "Geoscience Resources Atlas" , an online mapping application.
MODS FOR GIS
MapInfoTM and ArcViewTM
Selected fields from the MODS Database are also available on CD-ROM as part of the Geoscience Atlas of Newfoundland and the Geoscience Atlas of Labrador. Both operate as "turnkey" systems on microcomputers in MapInfo™ and ArcView™ formats.
The MODS is compiled mainly from a systematic search of mineral-exploration assessment reports. Other sources include publications by the Geological Survey of Newfoundland and Labrador, the Geological Survey of Canada, news items, press releases, geological and mining journal publications and communications with mining company and government personnel.
The MODS is used primarily by mineral exploration company personnel. It is also used by mineral exploration consultants, independent prospectors, geotechnical consultants, personnel and students of academic organizations and the general public. It is used daily by government geologists in land-use-planning. Advise is given to various government departments through the Inter-Departmental Land Use Committee (ILUC) referral process on establishing wilderness areas, hydroelectric developments, water reservoirs, provincial and national parks, cottage developments etc., so that where possible, these developments proceed in areas of low mineral potential.
Spatial Data Projection Information
MODS spatial data is projected using the Universal Transverse Mercator system, North American Datum 1927. Spatial data for Insular Newfoundland are projected into UTM Zone 21. Spatial data for Labrador are projected into UTM Zone 20.
List of Fields in the Database
Items in bold are the data fields as they appear in a "MODS Database System Report" while items in brackets are the corresponding field names in the "back end" database.
1. National Mineral Inventory Number (NMINO)
2. Record ID Number (RecID)
3. Deposit Name (DepName)
4. DDH (DDH)
5. Alternate Name (AltName)
6. Trench (Trench)
7. Major Commodity (ComName)
8. Adit (Adit)
9. Secondary Commodity(ies) (ComMods)
10. Shaft (Shaft)
11. Status (Status)
12. Workings (Working)
13. Complexity (EntCode)
14. Deposit Type (DepType)
15. Region (Region)
16. NTS Area (NTS)
17. UTM Zone (UTMZone)
18. Latitude (Lat)
19. Longitude (Long)
20. Easting (East)
21. Northing (North)
22. Location Uncertainty (Uncert)
23. Elevation (Elev)
24. Object Located (EntCom)
25. Accessibility (LocDesc)
26. Physiographic Setting (PhySet)
27. Ore Minerals (OreMin)
28. Gangue (Gangue)
29. Alteration Minerals (AltMin)
30. Alteration Type(s) (AltType)
31. Age of Mineralization (AgeMin
32. Deposit Description (DepDesc)
33. Metal/Mineral Content (MetMin)
34. Production and/or Reserves (HistPro)
35. Shape (Shape)
36. Shape Modifier (ShpMod)
37. Strike (Strike)
38. Dip (Dip)
39. Plunge (Plunge)
40. Length (Length)
41. Width (Width)
42. Thickness (Thick)
43. Nature Of Mineralization and Genesis (NatMin)
44. Regional Geology and Tectonic Setting (StrFea)
45. Geological Province (GeoProv)
46. Tectonic Zone (TecZone)
47. Stratigraphic Unit (StrUnit)
48. Geological Age (AgeCode)
49. Rock Type (Rocks)
50. History of Exploration and Development (HistExp)
51. Geophysical Expression (GeoPhy)
52. Geochemical Expression (GeoChem)
53. Location Reference
54. Map Reference
55. Main References
56. General References
Description of Data Fields
1. National Mineral Inventory Number (NMINO) Unique alpha numeric record identifier consisting of three parts separated by slashes. The first two parts place the deposit in the NTS grid. The third identifies the major commodity and its sequence within the 1:50,000 NTS map sheet in which it occurs.
1) Numerical part (3 characters) followed by one alpha character; this is the NTS primary unit, e.g. 012B
2) Numerical part (2 characters), e.g. 08
3) Alpha numeric-commodity code (3 alpha characters) followed by 3 numeric characters, e.g. GYP001. NMINO = 012B/08/Gyp001
2. Record ID Number (RecID) Unique number assigned to each record in order of entry into the database.
3. Deposit Name (DepName) The most commonly accepted deposit name found in the literature.
4. DDH (DDH) Indicates if the occurrence has been drilled or not and the number of holes, if any.
Null (no entry) - undrilled
0 -drilled, number of holes unknown
any number > 0 - drilled, number of holes equals the number entered
5. Alternate Name (AltName) Secondary name if deposit or occurrence has been known by some other name.
6. Trench (Trench) Yes/No field. Indicates if the occurrence has been trenched.
7. Major Commodity (Comname) contains the full name of the major commodity present in the deposit (eg. copper, zinc, granite).The major commodity is always the commodity of economic interest that occurs in greatest abundance. When two or more commodities occur in equal abundance the one that has the greater dollar value is to be designated as the major commodity.
8. Adit (Adit) Yes/No field. Indicates if the occurrence has had an adit driven in to it.
9. Secondary Commodity(ies) (ComMods) Secondary commodity(ies) present in the deposit.
10. Shaft (Shaft) Indicates if the occurrence has had a shaft sunk on it. Yes/No
11. Status (Status) Indicater of the amount of work done on a deposit, and hence, the amount of information which exists about the deposit.
There are seven major designations (status groups), of which groups 1 to 4 are major deposits and groups 5 to 7 are minor deposits.
2. Developed prospect
3. Past Producer - dormant
4. Past Producer - exhausted
Producer - a mineral deposit from which ore is being extracted for commercial gain or benefit. Does not include deposits from which the only material extracted has been for test purposes.
Developed Prospect - a mineral deposit on which, in the opinion of the file builder, enough development work has been done to provide data for the making of a reasonable estimate of the amounts of one or more commodities present, even though the data themselves may not be available.
- 3-dimensional data (i.e., length, width and depth)
Past Producer - a mineral deposit from which production is no longer obtained. Does not include those mineral deposits on which work was stopped after extracting a bulk sample for mailing and other tests, even though the sample may have been large.
dormant - additional in reserves or demonstrated resources
exhausted - no reserves or demonstrated resources
Prospect - a mineral deposit upon which, in the opinion of the file builder, enough development work has been done to provide data for the making of a reasonable estimate of the spacial extent of the deposit, but not enough to estimate the amount of any commodity present.
- 2-dimensional data (i.e., length and width)
Showing - a mineral deposit upon which some development work may have been done, but the extent of such work was not adequate, in the opinion of the file builder, to provide enough data to estimate its spacial dimensions.
- 1-dimensional data + grade
Indication - a mineral deposit upon which no known development work has been done, and for which, in the opinion of the file builder, there exists only an "indication" of its existence (i.e., a "point" on a map, assay, etc.).
12. Workings (Working) Indicator of the type of mine workings present, if any. Under Ground, Open Pit, Under Ground and Open Pit.
13. Complexity (EntCode) Indicates if the deposit consists of one body of mineralization (simple) or more than one (complex).
14. Deposit Type (DepType) Classification of the occurrence based of its genesis. See AppendixB
15. Region (Region) indicates the region of the province (Newfoundland or Labrador) in which the occurrence is located.
16. NTS Area (NTS) is an alpha numeric containing the 1:50,000 NTS area in which the occurrence is located. e.g. 12B/01.
17. UTM Zone (UTMZone) UTM zone in which the deposit is located.
18. Latitude (Lat) Latitude coordinate.
19. Longitude (Long) Longitude coordinate.
20. Easting (East)Easting coordinate
21. Northing (North) Northing coordinate.
22. Location Uncertainty (Uncert) Location error (in metres) as described by (Kelly, GSC Paper 72-9)
23. Elevation (Elev) The height above sea level of the object located in metres.
24. Object Located (EntCom) Indicates what physical feature has been used to locate the mineral occurrence and the Geological Survey of Newfoundland and Labrador library number of the report from which the information was taken.
25. Accessibility (LocDesc) Describes geographically where the occurrence is located and how it can be accessed.
26. Physiographic Setting (PhysSet) Description of the natural features of the earth's surface in the locality of the deposit.
27. Ore Minerals (OreMin) Minerals present which are of economic interest.
28. Gangue Minerals (Gangue) Minerals present that are not of economic interest excluding alteration minerals.
29. Alteration Minerals (WRAlt) Alteration minerals present in the host rock.
30. Alteration Type(s) (AltType) is assigned based on the assemblage of alteration minerals present and by using the "Atlas of Alteration, A Field and Petrographic Guide to Hydrothermal Alteration Minerals" edited by Thompson and Thompson as a guide.
Atlas of Alteration, A Field and Petrographic Guide to Hydrothermal Alteration Minerals. Edited by Thompson, A.J.B; Thompson, J.F.H. and Dunne, K.P.E.; 1996. Geological Association of Canada, Mineral Deposits Division.
31. Age of Mineralization (AgeMin) The age of the mineralization based on the geologic time scale.
32. Deposit Description (DepDesc) Description of the geology of the occurrence.
33. Metal/Mineral Content (MetMin) Indicator of the amount of metal content with regard to other minerals present. This information is usually derived from lab assays of rock samples.
34. Production and/or Reserves (HistPro) Periods during which the property was in
production, and to give some idea of the scale of the operations, the total production in terms of tonnage mined, tonnage milled, and amount of minerals or other commodities recovered for each of these periods. No attempt is made to compile year-by-year production statistics, excepting where operations have been carried out for only a few years.
35. Shape (Shape) Geometric shape of the deposit (if defined).
|(i) Isometroid||The deposit is regularly shaped and has approximately the same dimensions in all directions. Shapes range from tetrahedral to spheroidal.|
|(ii) Tabuloid||The deposit is roughly tabular, that is, has two long dimensions and one short. Any orientation in space is possible. The class includes veins, sills, dykes, etc.|
|(iii) Cylindroidal||The deposit has one long and two short dimensions with the two short ones being approximately equal. Any orientation in space is possible. This class includes pipes, etc.|
|(iv) Bladoid||A deposit having one long, one medium, and one short dimension. Any orientation in space is possible. Many shear and fault zones and some dykes will belong to this class.|
|(v) Irregular||Geometrically, the deposit is characterized by having no discernible regularity of form.|
|(vi) Lensoidal||The deposit has one long, one medium, and one short dimension. Any orientation in space is possible. Many volcanogenic massive sulphide deposits belong to this class.|
36. Shape Modifier (ShpMod) Shape modifier.
37. Strike (Strike) Direction of trend of the orebody measured in a horizontal plane. Recorded as an azimuth.
38. Dip (Dip) True Dip inclination of a body, from the horizontal, measured in a vertical plane perpendicular to strike. Recorded in degrees (0 - 90) with dip direction recorded as an azimuth.
39. Plunge (Plunge) Inclination of a body measured by its departure from the horizontal.
Plunge is indicated in degrees (0 - 90) with direction of plunge recorded as an azimuth.
40. Length (Length) largest dimension of the body.
41. Width (Width) the thickness of a lode measured in the same plane as the length and at right angles to the dip. The term "true width" is often used to describe this value, in which case width is used to denote the thickness irrespective of angle of dip.
42. Thickness (Thick) The dimension of a body measured perpendicular to the plane in which length and width are measured
43. Nature Of Mineralization and Genesis (NatMin) Description of the mineralization and the metallogenic process which deposited it.
44. Regional Geology and Tectonic Setting (StrFea) Description of the regional geology and tectonic setting of the deposit.
45. Geological Province (GeoProv) The geological province in which the occurrence lies. In Labrador some occurrences may lie in strata that post date deformation and straddle geological province boundaries. An example of this would include the Nain Plutonic Suite of Labrador. In Labrador all occurrences hosted by strata that post date deformation would have Post Orogenic Sequences placed in the geological province field. For insular Newfoundland the choices are either Appalachian or Grenville.
46. Tectonic Zone (TecZone) Only applies to occurrences of insular Newfoundland. Indicates the tectono-stratigraphic zone in which the occurrence lies. In cases where occurrences are hosted by strata that post date deformation and straddle zone boundaries Post Ordovician Overlap Sequence or Post Ordovician Intrusions are entered .
47. Stratigraphic Unit (StrUnit) The name of the stratigraphic unit which hosts the occurrence. Appendix C is a guide to stratigraphic unit names used in the Mineral Occurrence Data System.
48. The Geological Age (AgeCode) Age of the stratigraphic unit that hosts the mineralization.
49. Rock Type (Rocks) Individual rock types associated with the deposit. Example Granite Rhyolite, Gabbro.
50. History of Exploration and Development (HistExp) Describes the exploration and development history of the deposit, or in the case of undeveloped occurrences, the exploration history of the area in which the deposit or occurrence lies.
51. Geophysical Expression (GeoPhy) If a deposits has a geoahysical expression in the form of a geophysical anomaly a brief description is given.
52. Geochemical Expression (GeoChem) If a deposits has a geochemical expression in the form of a geochemical anomaly (i.e., Pb-Zn deposits - stream sampling) a brief description is given.
53. Location Reference Reference to the document from which the location of the occurrence was taken. An occurrence should have only one location reference.
54. Map Reference Map reference(s) that pertain to the occurrence.
55. Main References List for the most important references from which information was taken to document the occurrence.
56. General References List of references that pertain to the occurrence indirectly. These references may discuss the regional geology, geochemistry, geophysics etc.
According to Kelly's definition (Kelly, GSC Paper 72-9) the degree of uncertainty of a location is represented by the ratios of the smallest circle, which if centred on the apparent location, will almost certainly contain the point of interest. Uncertainty is measured in metres and is the greater of:
1. map scale, plot transfer and reading errors, which are additive;
2. total error estimated from doubts arising about the accuracy of plots, maps and locational descriptions.
The errors under (1) are a function of the map scales involved without regard for reliability of maps and plots. The matter of inherent map error (planimetric accuracy) has been covered by Kelly (ib.). To restate this briefly, features on the best maps (Topo) available may be regarded as plotted accurately to 0.5 mm, equivalent to errors of 125, 25 and 12.5 m, respectively, on 250 000, 50 000, and 25 000 scales. If plot transfer is involved from one scale to another, the net inherent error is that due to the smaller scale. In addition a reading error of at least 0.5 mm, on the lowest scale used must be added. Therefore, the total uncertainty due to map scale alone is always at least twice the (final) map error (e.g., 50 m for reading a point directly off a 1:50 000 map). Total uncertainty arising from doubt about the accuracy of the original plot, map base, or description is more subject to value judgement, although it may exceed that due to scale considerations alone. Here belong plots on geological maps, crude sketches, unsurveyed claim maps, dubious or off-centred map symbols, and descriptions with reference to unsurveyed claims and geographic or topographic features. The size of the total uncertainty to be assigned this component will vary according to the kind of data, and to personal judgement.
Map Scale Minimum Radius of Uncertainty on the Ground
1 inch to the following: Ratio Feet Metres
1000 feet 1:12 000 82 25
1320 feet 1:15 000 82 25
2640 feet 1:31 680 82 25
0.789 miles 1:50 000 82 25
1 mile 1:63 360 105 32
2 miles 1:126 720 207 63
3.95 miles 1:250 000 410 125
7.89 miles 1:500 000 820 250
15.78 miles 1:1 000 000 1640 500
EXAMPLES of Typical Location Problems
A copper occurrence is or isn't described briefly in a GSC Memoir and is marked with a cross on accompanying geol. Map SC. 1" : 16 mi., 1956. Topo coverage at 250 000 scale.
Analysis: Minimum map scale error is 500 m; add another 500 m for geologist's plotting error; transfer error to 250 000 topo and subsequent reading error are negligible.
Result: Object Located Cu showing
Uncertainty 1 000 m
Ref. # Geol. map, Sc. 1" : 16 mi, 1956
* Appropriate topo map Sc. 1:250 000
A zinc occurrence is or isn't described in accompanying report and is marked "Zn" on Map P. 345, 1" : 1 mi., 1965. Topo coverage at 50 000 scale.
Var. 1: The symbol is inside a large outcrop area.
Var. 2: The symbol is to the side of an isolated outcrop.
Analysis: Var. 1: the showing is probably somewhere within Ľ inch of symbol of ˝ radius of the centre-point of the symbol. Scale, plot transfer and reading errors - negligable.
Analysis: Var. 2: Take the cross symbol of outcrop; minimum map scale plus plotting error - 50 m; transfer and reading errors negligible.
Result Var. 1 Var. 2
Lat-Long centrepoint of "Zn" outcrop cross-symbol
Object Located Zn showing Zn showing
Uncertainty 800 m 50 m
Ref. # Map P. 345, 1965 # Map P. 345, 1965
*Topo Map - if used in determination *Topo Map - if used in
"Remarks" - Centre Pt. of "zn" determination of Lat.-Long.
symbol is taken as position of showing
The only reference to location is descriptive, e.g., "One mile north of Red Bay" - no clues can be gleaned from geological description. Topo map coverage at 50 000.
Var. 1: Red Bay is relatively small with well defined north point.
Var. 2: Red Bay has smooth or rugose outline extending east-west 2 miles without defined north point, or several such points.
Analysis: Var. 1: Take the point 1 mile north of north point of Red Bay. Uncertainty of description probably ˝ mile; others are negligible.
Analysis: Var. 2: Take the point 1 mi. north of centre outline of Red Bay. East-west uncertainty will be larger than descriptive, assign 1˝ mile uncertainty; those due to scale, negligible.
Result Var. 1 Var. 2
Lat-Long point 1 mi - N of N pt. of Red Bay Point 1 mi - N of centre of N
outline of Red Bay
Object Located showing showing
Uncertainty 800 m 2500 m
Ref. *Topo Maps
"Remarks": Corp. File:
"Anzac M.L." (in rept. filed, TSE, Sept. 8, 1973, p. 8).
The location of reported showing(s) is known to be within a large group of claims outlined on a Langridge map - no other clues.
Analysis: The point is taken as centre of circle circumscribing the claims, whether within or outside the group. The radius is the uncertainty with all other errors negligible.
Result: Objected Located Showing(s)
Uncertainty 5000 m
Ref. *Topo Map: "Remarks"; Langridge Map, Sturgeon L. Area, May 3, 1973 (Centre, circumscribed cl. gp.)
The only reference to deposit is this paragraph in The Canadian Mining Journal of Sept. 1970: "Canadian Nickel working since 1960 in the Horden Lake Area has outlined a copper-nickel orebody in gabbro". Quebec Prel. Map 1673, 1" : 1 mi., 1959, of the area, antedating the discovery, shows a 3-mile NE belt of basic-ultrabasic extending from south of east side of Horden Lake. There is no aeromagnetic coverage; the best topographic map is on a scale of 1:250 000.
Analysis: It is reasonable to assume that the deposit is within the basic intrusive belt, on which 2 small copper-nickel showings far apart are indicated. Scarcity of mapped outcrop at the ends of the belt suggests it may actually be 5 miles long.
Result: Lat-Long centre of belt
Object Located Cu-Ni deposit
Uncertainty 4 000 m (2˝ mi.)
Ref. "Remarks": Laurin & Dugas, CMJ, Sept. 1970, p. 392 # Prel. Map. 1673, 1959
The best location is a generalized map mine symbol on a 50 000 topo map.
Analysis: The mine area is known to have a shaft, glory hole, mill and buildings. While centre of shaft or glory hole would be the preferred object located, neither is pinpointed. We can still designate object located as either shaft or glory hole by giving uncertainty suitably larger, then that due to map and reading error, to the centre of the symbol. In this case, however, we are probably justified in giving a generalized designation.
Result: Lat-Long centre of map symbol
Object Located Mine
Uncertainty 50 m
Ref. # Map 36J/E----, 1942
A 1" : 1000' map shows distribution of drill holes on an occurrence in the Northwest Territories described in an accompanying company report, filed for assessment with the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development. Topographical map coverage is at 1:250 000.
Analysis: Pinpoint centre of drilling. Error due to transfer to topographical map is 125 m and reading error another 125 m; others are negligible.
Result: Lat-Long centre of Drilling
Object Located drilling (1968)
Uncertainty 250 m
(Write a paragraph on how the classification system is organized, discuss some applications etc.)
Heirachey, organized on genesis
Includes all deposits that are clearly related to magmatic or magmatic - hydrothermal processes.
001 Undivided deposits related to magmatic or magmatic- hydrothermal processes
002 - 049 ULTRAMAFIC - MAFIC MAGMATIC ASSOCIATIONS Mainly Cu-Ni-±PGE deposits
002 Undivided ultramafic - mafic magmatic deposits
010 - 024 DEPOSITS ASSOCIATED WITH EXTRUSIVE ROCKS
010 Undivided ultramafic - mafic magmatic deposits associated with extrusive rocks
015 Komatiitic association; includes magmatic sulphides associated with komatiitic volcanics
020 Tholeiitic Association
025 - 049 DEPOSITS ASSOCIATED WITH INTRUSIVE ROCKS
025 Undivided ultramafic - mafic magmatic deposits associated with intrusive rocks
030 Deposits associated with ophiolite sequences
035 Deposits associated with anorogenic anorthosite massifs
036 Deposits associated with anorogenic gabbro
040 Deposits associated with large stratiform complexes (e.g. layered intrusions)
045 Deposits associated with orogenic intrusions (e.g. Silurian gabbros in Appalachians)
050 - 059 FELSIC MAGMATIC ASSOCIATIONS Orthomagmatic mineralization
050 Undivided felsic magmatic deposits
051 FELSIC EXTRUSIVE ASSOCIATIONS (e.g. automineralized Sn rhyolite)
052 FELSIC INTRUSIVE ASSOCIATIONS (e.g. orthomagmatic Mo, Cu in granitoids not obviously related to magmatic - hydrothermal processes)
060 - 099 MAGMATIC - HYDROTHERMAL ASSOCIATIONS Includes all mineralization with a component of hydrothermal mass transport that is clearly genetically related to magmatic processes. There may be some overlap with structurally - controlled hydrothermal deposits (300-399). This class is intended only for deposits with a close spatial and probably direct genetic relationship with magmatic rocks. Mesothermal and other veins that cannot be directly related to magmatism (e.g. mesothermal mineralization, mineralized veins of uncertain origin) should be referred to 300-399.
060 Undivided magmatic - hydrothermal deposits
065 PORPHYRY - TYPE (Sensu lato as defined by McMillan and Panteleyev, 1988). Includes porphyry Cu, Mo, Au and Sn and the spectrum between purely orthomagmatic mineralization (which should be coded 052) and convective processes involving both magmatic and other water.
070 PEGMATITES Includes Sn, W, other base metals. Pegmatites for which the principal commodity is an industrial mineral (including gemstones, beryllium, feldspar, mica, fluorspar, rare earths or other rare metals) should be coded 520-525.
075 VEINS Includes only veins that are clearly directly related to intrusions. Other veins should be coded in the 300 series.
Includes both stratiform (generally syngenetic) deposits interbedded with host strata and epigenetic deposits that are stratabound in a broader sense, i.e., more or less confined to broad stratigraphic units. This class specifically excludes epigenetic mineralization that is structurally - controlled, even though it may be broadly stratabound (e.g. mesothermal gold at Stog'er Tight). Structurally - controlled veins as well as those of uncertain designation should be coded in the 300 series.
100 Undivided stratabound deposits
101 - 199 VOLCANIC ASSOCIATIONS
101 Undivided volcanic - associated stratabound deposits
110 - 169 SEAFLOOR (VOLCANOGENIC) SULPHIDE ASSOCIATION
Deposits of the marine volcanic association formed through sub-seafloor hydrothermal processes: includes both volcanogenic massive sulphides and volcanogenic stockworks. Deposits are subdivided and classified according to the nature of the stratigraphic section (e.g. ophiolite or volcanic/epiclastic) and the relative proportions of mafic and felsic volcanic rocks in the host sequence.
110 Undivided volcanogenic sulphide deposits
111 - 119 Deposits associated with volcanic rocks that are part of ophiolite sequences
111 Undivided volcanogenic sulphide deposits in ophiolites
112 Massive sulphide (±stockwork)
113 Volcanogenic stockwork
114 Sulphide - bearing breccia
120 - 129 Deposits associated with dominantly mafic volcanic rocks that are part of thick volcanic/epiclastic sequences
120 Undivided volcanogenic sulphide deposits in thick, mafic- dominated volcanic/epiclastic sequences
121 Massive sulphide (±stockwork)
122 Volcanogenic stockwork
123 Sulphide - bearing breccia
130 - 139 Deposits associated with sequences of mixed mafic - felsic (e.g. 35:65 to 65:35) volcanic rocks that are part of thick volcanic/epiclastic sequences
130 Undivided volcanogenic sulphide deposits in thick, mixed mafic/felsic volcanic/epiclastic sequences
131 Massive sulphide (±stockwork)
132 Volcanogenic stockwork
133 Sulphide - bearing breccia
140 - 149 Deposits associated with dominantly felsic volcanic rocks that are part of thick volcanic/epiclastic sequences
140 Undivided volcanogenic sulphide deposits in thick, felsic - dominated volcanic/epiclastic sequences
141 Massive sulphide (±stockwork)
142 Volcanogenic stockwork
143 Sulphide - bearing breccia
150 - 159 Deposits hosted by marine sedimentary rocks that are nonetheless part of a dominantly volcanic association
150 Undivided sediment-hosted deposits associated with marine volcanic rocks
151 Clastic host (e.g. Many "Besshi-type" massive sulphides)
152 Chert host
153 Limestone host
154 Algoma-type iron formation - oxide facies
155 Algoma-type iron formation - sulphide facies
170 - 199 EPIGENETIC VOLCANIC ASSOCIATIONS
Includes epigenetic mineralization that is stratabound by virtue of being localized within favourable volcanic stratigraphic units. Excludes structurally-controlled epigenetic mineralization in volcanic rocks, which should be coded in the 300 series.
170 Undivided stratabound volcanic deposits
180 - 184 SEDIMENTARY COPPER ASSOCIATION
Copper mineralization hosted by volcanic rocks in a dominantly continental sedimentary succession, associated with sedimentary copper deposits (e.g. epigenetic copper in breccias and amygdaloidal basalts in the Seal Lake area)
180 Undivided sedimentary copper deposits
185 - 189 STRATABOUND MINERALIZATION IN SILLS
185 Undivided stratabound mineralization in sills
190 - 199 VOLCANIC-RELATED URANIUM MINERALIZATION
Uranium localized in felsic tuff by diagenetic or epigenetic processes (e.g. Michelin).
190 Undivided volcanic-related uranium deposits
200 - 289 SEDIMENTARY ASSOCIATIONS
200 Undivided stratabound mineralization in sedimentary rocks
201 - 219 STRATABOUND DEPOSITS IN CARBONATE ROCKS
201 Undivided stratabound deposits in carbonate rocks
205 Stratiform syngenetic sulphides (dominantly Pb, Zn ± Ba, "Irish - type")
210 - 219 Epigenetic stratabound deposits in carbonate rocks
210 Undivided epigenetic stratabound deposits in carbonate rocks
211 Primary Void Filling
212 Secondary Void Filling (e.g. karst, dolomitic breccia)
213 Veins where clearly stratabound within carbonate hosts and/or closely related to other carbonate-hosted epigenetic mineralization (e.g. some occurrences in Carboniferous rocks on the Port au Port Peninsula).
220 - 269 STRATABOUND DEPOSITS IN CLASTIC SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
220 Undivided stratabound deposits in clastic sedimentary rocks
221 - 239 Shale-hosted deposits
221 Undivided shale-hosted deposits
222 Stratabound copper deposits; Hosted by shales and mudstones, associated with redbeds and evaporites: includes late diagenetic (e.g. "Kuperschiefer-type") and epigenetic deposits (e.g. many deposits in Seal Lake area)
223 Epigenetic stratabound, non-cupriferous metal deposits (e.g. stratabound, epigenetic Pb, Zn)
224 Stratiform Pb-Zn deposits in black shale (Sedimentary exhalative or "SEDEX" deposits)
225 Argillite-hosted uranium occurrences (e.g. Kitts)
240 - 249 Sandstone-hosted deposits Includes diagenetic to epigenetic, aquifer and stratigraphic trap-related mineralization.
240 Undivided sandstone-hosted deposits
241 Sandstone-hosted copper deposits (includes redbed, greybed)
242 Sandstone-hosted uranium deposits
243 Sandstone lead deposits (Laisval type)
244 Placers and paleoplacers (Au, U)
250 - 259 Conglomerate-hosted deposits
250 Undivided conglomerate-hosted deposits
251 Matrix replacement sulphides
252 Conglomerate-hosted uranium deposits
270 - 279 Other sediment-hosted associations
270 Undivided other sediment-hosted deposits
271 Evaporite-hosted Deposits
280 - 289 Sedimentary iron deposits not including Algoma type, which is part of the volcanic association, or magnetite sands, which are placers and should be coded 244.
280 Undivided sedimentary iron deposits
281 Superior-type banded iron formation (e.g. Labrador Trough)
282 Clinton-type oolitic iron formation (e.g. Wabana)
283 Bog iron recent deposits
290 - 299 STRATABOUND DEPOSITS IN METAMORPHIC ROCKS Includes only stratabound deposits where the original character cannot be determined
290 Undivided stratabound deposits in metamorphic rocks
300 - 399
HYDROTHERMAL, STRUCTURALLY-CONTROLLED MINERALIZATION
This class is meant to encompass all deposits for which the controlling mechanisms are dominantly structural rather than stratigraphic. They include deposits that are related to mineralization along shear zones, faults, fold hinges or other structural features. There is some overlap with class 200-299 in cases where fluids have migrated along structural features and then deposited mineralization along favourable horizons (e.g. Carlin - type gold). Likewise, there is ambiguity where competency contrast between stratigraphic units has controlled fluid flow and mineralization within the more competent unit (e.g. some mesothermal gold situations). Discretion should be used in deciding whether there is a significant structural control to the mineralization, in which case it should be coded in the 300 series. In general, all epithermal and mesothermal gold mineralization should be coded in this class. Specifically excluded are clear magmatic-hydrothermal associations.
300 Undivided hydrothermal, structurally-controlled deposits
310 - 329 STRUCTURALLY-CONTROLLED VEIN SYSTEMS WITH BASE OR PRECIOUS METALS
310 Undivided hydrothermal vein systems
311 - 320 VEIN SYSTEMS ACCOMPANIED BY MINIMAL WALLROCK ALTERATION
311 Undivided vein systems accompanied by no or minimal wallrock alteration
312 Mesothermal precious metal association e.g. the quartz-vein type of Dubé, 1989, Deer Cove, Cape Ray) may include; Au, As, Sb, locally accompanied by base metals
321 - 329 VEIN SYSTEMS ACCOMPANIED BY SIGNIFICANT OR WIDESPREAD WALLROCK ALTERATION
320 Undivided vein systems accompanied by significant or widespread wallrock alteration
321 precious metal mineralization accompanied by aluminous alteration; includes most Newfoundland examples of epithermal - type mineralization, e.g. Hickey's Pond, probably Hope Brook
322 precious metal mineralization accompanied by alkali - carbonate alteration; mesothermal examples include both broadly stratabound mesothermal mineralization in gabbroic sills (e.g. Stog'er Tight) and alkali alteration and mineralization of granitoid rocks (e.g. Rattling Brook, Western White Bay).
330 - 339 STRUCTURALLY - CONTROLLED MINERALIZATION NOT ASSOCIATED WITH VEINING
330 Undivided structurally controlled deposits not associated with veining
331 Unconformity - related uranium deposits
400 - 449
Includes deposits resulting from essentially isochemical metamorphism. Does not include deposits formed through metasomatic or magmatic-hydrothermal processes
400 Undivided metamorphogenic deposits
500 - 599
IGNEOUS ROCKS AND MINERALS
500 - 519 INTRUSIVE ROCKS
500 Undivided intrusive igneous rocks and minerals
501 - 504 ULTRAMAFIC ROCKS
501 Undivided ultramafic intrusive igneous rocks and minerals
502 Ultramafic rocks as stone
503 Minerals of value in ultramafic rocks; includes olivine, chromite
505 - 509 MAFIC ROCKS
505 Undivided mafic intrusive igneous rocks and minerals
506 stone (e.g. gabbro, diorite, anorthosite)
507 minerals of value in mafic rocks (e.g., Fe-Ti oxides, gems)
510 - 515 FELSIC ROCKS excluding pegmatites
510 Undivided felsic intrusive igneous rocks and minerals
511 Felsic intrusive rocks as stone (e.g. granite)
512 Minerals of value in felsic intrusive rocks
513 Nepheline syenite
520 - 525 PEGMATITES Includes deposits of feldspar, mica, quartz, lithium minerals, beryllium minerals, fluorspar and rare metals (e.g. Strange Lake high grade zone). May also include Labradorite gemstone in anorthositic pegmatites
520 Undivided pegmatitic rocks and minerals
540 - 549 EXTRUSIVE ROCKS
540 Undivided extrusive igneous rocks and minerals
541 - 544 MAFIC ROCKS
541 Undivided mafic extrusive igneous rocks and minerals
543 Minerals of value in mafic rocks
545 - 549 FELSIC ROCKS
545 Undivided felsic extrusive igneous rocks and minerals
547 Minerals of value in felsic rocks; includes magmatic - hydrothermal deposits such as rare metal occurrences in Letitia Lake area.
600 - 639 CONSOLIDATED AND UNCONSOLIDATED CLASTIC SEDIMENTS
600 Undivided clastic sediments
601 - 619 PLACERS Includes Fe-Ti oxide, chromite, other heavy mineral sands. Includes paleoplacers.
601 Undivided placers
620 - 629 UNCONSOLIDATED SURFICIAL DEPOSITS
620 Undivided unconsolidated surficial deposits
621 sand and gravel aggregate
623 silica sand
630 - 639 CONSOLIDATED CLASTIC SEDIMENTARY ROCKS Includes sandstone, shale, quartzite
630 Undivided consolidated clastic sedimentary rocks
640 - 659 BIOGENIC SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
640 Undivided biogenic sedimentary rocks
641 - 649 UNCONSOLIDATED SURFICIAL DEPOSITS
641 Undivided unconsolidated surficial deposits
642 diatomaceous earth
650 - 659 CONSOLIDATED BIOGENIC SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
650 Undivided consolidated biogenic sedimentary rocks
651 Carbonates (e.g., includes limestone, dolomite, chalk)
654 Silicates (e.g., chert, chalcedony)
660 - 679 CHEMICAL SEDIMENTS
660 Undivided chemical sediments
661 - 669 EVAPORITES Includes barite, celestite, salt, potash, gypsum, anhydrite, etc.
661 Undivided evaporates
670 - 679 NON-EVAPORITIC PRECIPITATES Includes sedimentary manganese, umbers, non-biogenic limestone (e,g, oolitic limestone)
670 Undivided non-evaporitic precipitates
680 - 689 FOSSIL FUELS (Not including peat)
680 Undivided fossil fuels
682 oil seep or tar
683 oil-saturated clastic sediments
PRODUCTS OF HYDROTHERMAL OR SURFICIAL ALTERATION AND WEATHERING
700 Undivided rocks and minerals resulting from alteration or weathering
701 - 705 MINERALS DEPOSITED FROM HYDROTHERMAL SOLUTIONS e.g. silica in quartz veins, fluorspar not contained in pegmatites, includes some types of manganese deposits, umbers
701 Undivided minerals deposited from hydrothermal solutions
706 - 710 ROCKS AND MINERALS RESULTING FROM HYDROTHERMAL (METASOMATIC) ALTERATION (e.g. Manuals pyrophyllite, asbestos, talc, magnesite)
706 Undivided rocks and minerals resulting from hydrothermal alteration
720 - 749 SURFICIALLY ALTERED ROCKS AND MINERALS
720 Undivided surficially altered rocks and minerals
721 - 725 RESIDUAL DEPOSITS Includes laterite, vermiculite, regolith (e.g. the Fermont Road silica deposit), ochre
721 Undivided residual deposits
750 Undivided metamorphic rocks and minerals
751 - 759 METAMORPHIC ROCKS OF VALUE
751 Undivided metamorphic rocks of value
752 Carbonates (e.g. marble)
753 Silicates (e.g. slate, soapstone, serpentinite, quartzite)
760 - 769 METAMORPHIC MINERALS OF VALUE Includes graphite, corundum, garnet, wollastonite, alumino-silicate refractory minerals)
760 Undivided metamorphic minerals of value
Andersons Cove Fm
Baie D'espoir Gp
Baie D'espoir Gp - Isle Galet Fm
Balsam Bud Cove Fm
Barbace Point Fm-St George Gp
Bay De Verde Fm-Hodgewater Gp
Bay du Nord Gp
Bay of Islands Igneous Complex
Bay View Fm
Beach Fm-Eastern Head Member
Beaver Brook Fm
Bell Island Gp
Belle Bay Fm
Betts Cove Complex
Big Head Fm-Musgravetown Gp
Big Round Pond Granite
Birchy Schist Gp
Blow Me Down Brook Fm
Boat Harbour Fm-St George Gp
Bonavista Fm-Adeyton Gp
Boones Point Complex
Botwood Gp-Wigwam Fm
Branching River Fm
Brent Island Fm-St George Gp
Brigus Fm-Adeyton Gp
Bugell's Harbour Gabbro
Bull Arm Fm-Musgravetown Gp
Burnt Head Fm-Cutwell Gp
Business Cove Granite
Cape Brule Porphyry
Cape Ray Fault Mylonite Zone
Cape Rouge Fm
Cape St John Gp
Catchers Pond Gp
Catoche Fm-St George Gp
Chamberlains Brook Fm
Chapel Arm Fm
Chapel Island Fm
Cinq Cerf Complex
Cinq Isles Fm
Clam Bank Fm
Clancey's Pond Complex
Cobbs Arm Limestone
Cochrane Pond Granite
Codroy Road Fm-codroy Gp
Coney Arm Allochthon
Coney Arm Gp
Coney Head Complex
Connaigre Bay Group
Connecting Point Gp
Cormacks Lake Complex
Corner Brook Fm-St George Gp
Cow Head Gp-Humber Arm SupGp
Coy Pond Complex
Crippleback Lake Qtz Monzonite
Cross Hills Batholith
Cross Hills Plutonic Suite
Crown Hill Fm
Cuckold Fm-Signal Hill Gp
Deadman's Bay Granite
Deer Lake Gp
Devils Room Granite
Dolomite Fm-Labrador Gp
Dominion Fm-Bell Island Gp
Doucers Fm-Coney Arm Gp
Doughball Point Fm
Drook Fm-Conception Gp
East Pond Metamorphic Suite
Fermeuse Fm-St John's Gp
Flatwater Pond Gp
Fleur De Lys Supgp
Fortune Harbour Fm
Frenchmans Cove Fm
Friars Cove Fm-Anguille Gp
Gales Brook Dolomite
Gales Brook Granite
Gander Lake Pluton
Gander River Ultrabasic Belt
Garden Cove Fm-White Bay Gp
Georges Brook Fm-La Poile Gp
Gibbett Hill Fm-Signal Hill Gp
Glover Island Complex
Goose Cove Fm
Goose Tickle Fm
Grand Bank Sequence
Grand Beach Complex
Grand Lake Gp
Grand Le Pierre Fm
Great Bay De L'eau Fm
Great Bend Complex
Green Point Series-St Paul Gp
Grey River Quartz Veins
Gull Island Fm
Gull Lake Intrusive Suite
Halls Bay Pluton
Halls Town Fm-Hodgewater Gp
Harbour Breton Granite
Harbour Le Cou Gp
Harbour Main Gp
Hare Bay Gneiss
Hawke Bay Fm-Labrador Gp
Hawks Nest Pond Porphyry
Hearts Content Fm
Hearts Desire Fm
Howley Beds Fm-Deer Lake Gp
Hughes Brook Fm-St George Gp
Humber Arm SupGp
Humber Falls Fm-Deer Lake Gp
Hungry Hill Gabbro
Indian Head Complex
Indian Islands Gp
Iona Island Intusive Suite
Isle Galet Fm-baie D'espoir Gp
Kaegudeck Lake Gabbro
Kim Lake Felsic Member
L Codroy Gp
La Poile Gp
La Scie Granite
Lawrence Harbour Shale
Little Harbour Fm
Little Passage Gneisses
Little Pond Brook Fm
Little Port Complex
Little Port Slice Gp
Lloyds Intrusive Suite
Long Harbour Gp
Long Island Batholith
Long Point Gp
Long Range Complex
Long Range Gneiss
Long Tickle Fm-Cutwell Gp
Love Cove Gp
Lower Buchans Subgp
Lower Volcanic Fm-Sops Arm Gp
Luscombe Point Fm
Lush's Bight Gp
Maccles Lake Granite
Maiden Point Fm
March Point Fm-P Au P Gp
Mary Ann's Fm
Maturin Ponds Fm
Mcgraw Member-Beach Fm
Mic Mac Gp
Micrite Fm-Labrador Gp
Middle Ridge Granite
Ming's Bight Gp
Mooring Cove Fm
Mt Lucy-Anne Fm
Mt Peyton Gabbro
Murry Cove Schist
Natlins Cove Fm-Sops Arm Gp
New Bay Fm
North Bay Granite
North Branch Fm-Codroy Gp
North Brook Fm-Deer Lake Gp
North Pond Pluton
North Steady Pond Fm
North West Brook Complex
Old House Cove Gp
Otter Point Granite
Pacquet Harbour Gp
Pardy Island Fm
Parsons Point Fm-Cutwell Gp
Partridgeberry Hills Granite
Penny's Brook Fm
Petit Jardin Fm-P Au P Gp
Pigeon Head Unit
Pigeon Island Fm-White Bay Gp
Pine Falls Fm
Pine Tree Unit-St George Gp
Pipestone Pond Complex
Pleasant View Fm
Point Rousse Complex
Pools Cove Fm
Port Aux Basques Gneiss
Port Aux Basques Granite
Port Aux Bras Fm
Post Glacial Zone
Quidi Vidi Fm-Signal Hill Gp
Ragged Islands Intrusion
Rainy Lake Complex
Rattling Brook Gp
Reddits Cove Gabbro
Renews Head Fm-St John's Gp
Riches Island Fm
Roberts Arm Gp
Robinsons River Fm-Codroy Gp
Rocky Brook Fm-Deer Lake Gp
Rose Blanche Granite
Salmon River Dam Fm
Salt Pond Fm
Schooner Cove Sill
Scotia Fm-Bell Island Gp
Sculpin Point Fm-Burin Gp
Seal Bay Brook Fm
Seal Cove Complex-Cutwell Gp
Seal Cove Pluton
Searston Fm-Barachois Gp
Ship Cove Fm-Codroy Gp
Shoal Arm Fm
Side Harbour Fm
Signal Hill Gp
Simms Ridge Fm-Sops Arm Gp
Skeleton Pond Tuff
Sleepy Cove Fm
Smith Point Fm-Adeyton Gp
Snakes Bight Fm-Anguille Gp
Snooks Arm Gp
Snows Pond Fm-Hodgewater Gp
Sops Arm Gp
Sops Head Complex
South End Fm
South Lake Igneous Complex
Southern Arm Fm-St George Gp
Southern Hills Fm-Love Cove Gp
Southwest Brook Complex
Spout Falls Fm
Square Pond Gneiss
St Anthony Complex
St George Gp
St George Gp-White Hills Unit
St Josephs Cove Fm
St Lawrence Granite
St Paul Gp-Humber Arm Supgp
Stag Island Fm-Cutwell Gp
Steel Mountain Anorthosite
Stoney Hill Fm-Sops Arm Gp
Swift Current Granite
Table Head Gp
Table Point Fm-Table Head Gp
Tea Arm Volcanics
Tickle Point Fm
Tims Harbour Fm
Topsails Granite-Glover Fm
Topsails Intrusive Suite
Trinny Cove Fm
Trump Island Fm
U Codroy Gp
Unfortunate Cove Fm
Unit 9b-Advocate Complex
Unnamed Caradocian Chert-shale
Unnamed Granite Rocks
Upper Buchans Subgp
Venams Bight Basalt
Victoria Lake Gp
Watts Bight Fm-St George Gp
Webbers Cove Conglomerate
Western Head Fm
White Bay Gp-Fleur De Lys Supg
White Hills Peridotite
White Hills Unit-St George Gp
Wigwam Fm-Botwood Gp
Windowglass Hill Granite
Windsor Point Gp
Youngsters Gulch Member
Stratigraphic Unit Names/labrador
Adeline Island Fm-Seal Lake Gp
Adlavik Intrusive Suite
Arc Lake Intrusive Suite
Astray Lake Fm
Ballet Pond Schists
Benedict Mtns Intrusive Suite
Bessie Lake Fm-Seal Lake Gp
Brown Lake Fm-Bruce River Gp
Cape Harrison Metamorphic Ste
Denault Fm-knob Lake Gp
Dolly Fm-knob Lake Gp
Eastern Basement Complex
Florence Lake Gp
Flowers River Igneous Suite
Harp Lake Intrusive Suite
Heggart Lake Fm-Bruce River Gp
Island Harbor Bay Plutonic Ste
Joe Pond Fm-Moran Lake Gp
Kanairiktok Intrusive Suite
Le Fer Fm-knob Lake Gp
Long Island Quartz Monzonite
Lower Aillik Gp
Menihek Fm-knob Lake Gp
Moran Lake Gp
Nain Anorthosite Complex
Nain Plutonic Suite
Nimish Subgp-knob Lake Gp
Otter Lake-walker Lake Granite
Red Wine Alk Intrusive Suite
Ruth & Sokoman Fm-knob Lake Gp
Ruth Lake Fm-knob Lake Gp
S Kaipokok Valley Int Suite
Salmon Lake Fm-Seal Lake Gp
Sawyer Lake Fm-knob Lake Gp
Schist Lakes Fm
Shabogamo Intrusive Suite
Sokoman Fm-Knob Lake Gp
Sokoman/Menihek Fm-Knob Lake
Sylvia Lake Fm-Bruce River Gp
Thompson Lake Fm-Doublet Gp
Upper Aillik Gp
Upper Red Quartzite Fm
Warren Creek Fm-Moran Lake Gp
Whisky Lake Fm-seal Lake Gp
Willbob Fm-Doublet Gp
Wishart Fm-Knob Lake Gp
Wuchusk Lake Fm-Seal Lake Gp